Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Food Science and Nutrition


Food Science and Nutrition


College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences


Luis Castro

Advisor Department

Food Science and Nutrition

Advisor College

College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences


Phenolics are critical to the sensory attributes and health benefits of hard cider due to their contribution to the flavor, mouthfeel, and antioxidant activity. With the increase in demand for cider, the use of dessert apple varieties has become more common leaving ciders lacking in phenolics. However, a promising method to increase their phenolic content is through maceration with apple pomace. This study evaluated the effect maceration with apple pomace during cider fermentation on the extraction of phenolic compounds, as well as its effect on the sensory properties of the final product. For this study, ciders were fermented with 0% (control), 20%, 35%, and 50% of the average pomace created during production of the apple must. After fermentation, the ciders were analyzed for acid content, total phenolic content (TPC), alcohol by volume (ABV), color, volatile profile, and sensory properties. The ciders fermented with apple pomace went through malolactic fermentation. During the maceration phenolics were extracted which resulted in an increase in phenolic content in cider. Compared to the control, the treatment ciders were also seen to have higher ABV and TPC, lower acidity, and a different aromatic profile: decreased acetaldehyde and increased ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, and phenylethyl alcohol. The color measurements suggests that treatment ciders were lighter, with a higher red and yellow color compared to the control cider. The sensory analysis revealed the treatment ciders were perceived as less acidic and astringent, but more bitter than the controls. This study shows the addition of apple pomace in its native state increases total phenolic content and could be favorable to produce well rounded ciders. This study shows maceration is a promising technique for increasing phenolic content in ciders.