Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Biomedical Engineering


Trevor Cardinal


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and osteoporosis have recently been shown to be associated; with the parallel occurrence suggesting that PAD related ischemia may cause or enhance the onset of osteoporosis. In order to determine the mechanism linking osteoporosis and PAD this paper will examine the effects of ischemia and mechanical stimulation on bone remodeling. An immunohistochemistry protocol for vessel marking in bone was also developed. Ischemia was induced in a mouse model to determine vascular and mechanical property changes in bone in response to hypoxia, and mechanical loading-induced remodeling was analyzed for vascular changes. Both ischemia and mechanical loading increased bone vessel density, with ischemic bone increases seen at day 7 and 14. Bone stiffness increased after induced ischemia at day 28. These results point to resultant hypoxia from ischemia drives bone mechanical property changes, likely through stimulation of bone remodeling. We also conclude that an increase in vessel density is seen after induced mechanical loading of bone. Establishing the vascular contribution to the remodeling process may reveal treatment opportunities for remodeling-dependent pathologies such as osteoporosis.