Available at: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/theses/59
Date of Award
MS in Agriculture - Dairy Products Technology
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of key process parameters on the flow properties of a novel High Protein Dairy Food (HPDF). HPDF was manufactured by an approach similar to that of manufacture of Halloumi cheese (a semi hard cheese originally from Cyprus). The effect of pasteurization condition, pH of acidification and homogenization were investigated on flowability, composition and texture of the HPDF. The study consisted of three different stages. After each stage of experimentation, the HPDF was analyzed for compositional, textural (by texture profile analysis) and flow properties during heating by microwave, oven and hot water was measured by Schreiber melt test. The first stage of experimentation screened 18 batches of HPDF under three levels of pasteurization conditions (191°F/16 sec, 175°F/16 sec and 161°F/16 sec), three levels of pH of acidification (5.8,6.2 and 6.6) and two levels of homogenization conditions (two stage homogenization (2000 psi/500 psi) and no homogenization). Based on the results of the first stage, a statistically powerful second stage of experiment was designed in which two levels of pasteurization condition (191°F/16 sec and 161°F/16 sec) and three levels of pH of acidification (5.8, 6.2 and 6.6) were employed in duplicate to manufacture HPDF. The third stage of experimental design was to investigate the effect of two-stage homogenization treatment (2000 psi/500 psi) with two levels (homogenization and no homogenization). The results of all three stages of experimentation proved that HPDF made from milk pasteurized under higher pasteurization condition (191°F/16 sec) had significantly higher flow resistance under all three heating conditions. There was significant interaction between pH of coagulation of milk and pasteurization condition on flow properties of HPDF with pH of coagulation 5.8 restriction flow of HPDF under all three heating conditions. The role of homogenization in restricting flow of HPDF was not significant, although the mean flow of HPDF, made from homogenized milk, decreased. The mean protein content and mean moisture content of HPDF was significantly affected by all three processing conditions, although the mean fat content of HPDF was not influenced by any of these conditions. The mean fat, protein and moisture content of HPDF were in the range of 10.5-11, 26-34 and 47-54 percent respectively. The primary textural properties affected significantly by the processing condition were hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Particularly, hardness was influenced by higher pasteurization condition and lower pH of acidification. Further, to judge the consumer acceptability of HPDF, various recipes made out of HPDF with different heating applications (baking, stir-frying and soup) were served to 12 panelists of DPTC. Their opinions were collected and analyzed statistically. The analysis of limited focus group survey showed that consumer liking for HPDF recipe was significantly influenced by prior familiarity with the recipe, although there was some preference for HPDF over tofu due to its ‘dairy’ flavor. When the texture of HPDF manufactured from milk pasteurized at 191°F/16 sec and pH of acidification 5.8 and 6.2 were compared with various commercial protein sources, the hardness of the HPDF was very close to extra firm tofu. All the other textural properties of HPDF were significantly different from firm, silken, baked or reduced fat tofu. From this project, it is evident that a high protein food, which can be part of day-to-day human diet and potential tofu alternative, can be obtained using halloumi approach by optimizing pasteurization condition (191°F/16 sec) and pH of coagulation (5.8).