Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Kinesiology




Kellie Green Hall


The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an external focus of attention on the learning of dart throwing at three different focus reminder frequencies (every two, every four and every ten trials). Twenty-four male and female subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Subjects threw darts at a circular target 60 times over two days while getting a reminder of their intended external focus at the three different reminder frequencies. Five-day delayed retention and transfer tests were conducted to assess learning, each consisting of five trials. The target was comprised of five concentric circles, with the center zone worth five points and the outer-most zone worth one point. Target scores were used for statistical analysis. Findings show that the groups given a reminder after every fourth and tenth trial perform better during acquisition (F=13.61; p<0.001). Furthermore, the group that received a reminder after every tenth trial performed the best during the retention test. Although, the high variability within groups may have prevented more significant differences between reminder frequency groups in the retention and transfer test results, it is evident that less-frequent reminders result in better performance and learning of dart throwing.

Included in

Kinesiology Commons