Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Food Science and Nutrition


Food Science and Nutrition


College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences


Angelos Sikalidis

Advisor Department

Food Science and Nutrition

Advisor College

College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences


Plant-based diets have become popular in the past 10 years, with approximately 11% of Americans self-identifying as vegan or vegetarian, and many others trying to reduce meat consumption. Due to this increasing interest, the plant-based food market has exploded with several novel innovative products serving as alternatives to animal-based products. One such example is almond protein powder, a fairly new protein supplement created as an alternative to whey protein. A number of studies have compared animal-based protein supplementation, such as whey to plant-based supplementation, such as soy, on muscle protein synthesis and skeletal muscle preservation. Due to the novelty of almond protein, little is known regarding how well the protein supplement performs in the body. The effects of both almond and whey-based protein beverage on nitrogen balance, body composition, and hydration in the body were investigated in the work presented herein. Twenty female students aged 20-25 were randomly assigned to consume either an almond or whey-based protein drink twice daily for 7 days. A 24-hour urine collection was performed at baseline and endpoint of the 7-day treatment period, and nitrogen balance was assessed. The effects of supplementation on nitrogen balance in almond and whey protein were equally capable of increasing significantly the N balance from 8.58g to 11.66g (p =0.05), indicating that almond protein powder may be a functional plant-based replacement to whey protein powder, and may be of interest in future research regarding muscle mass and body composition changes.