Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Biomedical Engineering


Biomedical and General Engineering


College of Engineering


Lily Laiho

Advisor Department

Biomedical and General Engineering

Advisor College

College of Engineering


Fluoroscopy is considered the gold standard for locating catheters during cardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures. However, fluoroscopy emits ionizing radiation which can lead to adverse health effects when exposed to in high doses (World Health Organization, 2016). Electroanatomic mapping (EAM) systems display the three-dimensional location of EP catheters and measure the local electrical activity of the heart. They can minimize a physician’s reliance on fluoroscopy and can help reduce radiation exposure during a case (Casella, 2011).

EAM systems are diagnostic medical devices that inform the placement of ablation therapy and must accurately locate catheters to be deemed safe. Test methods to determine EAM system accuracy should be compared back to a gold standard, such as fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy only provides a two-dimensional image of the catheter location, which is not a suitable ground truth for measuring the three-dimensional accuracy of EAM systems. X-Ray Reconstruction of Electrode Locations (XRROEL) calculates the true three-dimensional catheter location by performing a coordinate transform on two-dimensional fluoroscopy images. This thesis outlines the development and validation of the XRROEL method in a porcine animal model, and describes how XRROEL can be applied to optimize the location accuracy of electroanatomic mapping system algorithms.