Date of Award

3-2020

Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Food Science and Nutrition

Department

Food Science and Nutrition

College

College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences

Advisor

Samir Amin

Advisor Department

Food Science and Nutrition

Advisor College

College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences

Abstract

Commercial carrot processors produce up to 175,000 tons of carrot waste annually. Carrot Mash (CM) is the term referring to the waste by-product of peeled baby carrot processing. Transportation of carrot processing waste is expensive due to its high- water content (approx. 83-95%). High in bioactive compounds (carotenoids) and dietary fibers, it is expected that its conversion into a value-added by-product is of interest to the carrot processing industry. Hemicellulose-rich plant materials have proven to be a source of oligosaccharides, which are known for their beneficial prebiotic activity. The objectives of this research were to: 1) determine the effect of mechanical treatments on the extraction of water and bioactive compounds and evaluate the functional properties of carrot mash; 2) incorporate dried carrot mash into a beef patty and evaluate changes in pH, color, cooking yield, and texture; 3) apply an enzymatic treatment to carrot mash to promote the conversion of polysaccharides to oligosaccharides for prebiotic benefits.

Mechanical separation of liquid and solid fractions by way of expeller pressing was efficient in extracting liquid while simultaneously increasing total solids by nearly 200%, the extraction of carotenoids by 1000%, and polyphenol content by nearly 97%. Mechanical treatments increased the fat binding capacity on average by 183% compared to untreated mash. The addition of unpressed carrot mash or expeller pressed carrot mash increased the cooking yield of a beef patty by 3-13% without significantly changing its textural properties. Enzymatically treating the carrot mash significantly increased the concentration of oligosaccharides up to 2.3%.

These results suggest that carrot processing wastes can be physically and enzymatically modified and have an immense potential to be utilized as a functional ingredient in human food rather than being landfilled, composted or used as animal feed.

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