Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Biomedical Engineering


Biomedical and General Engineering


College of Engineering


Stephen Klisch

Advisor Department

Mechanical Engineering

Advisor College

College of Engineering


The objectives of this study were to 1) calculate participant-specific segment inertial parameters using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data (referred to as full DXA-driven parameters) and compare the pitching arm kinetic predictions using full DXA-driven inverse dynamics vs scaled, DXA mass-driven (using DXA masses but scaled centers of mass and radii of gyration), and DXA scaled inverse dynamics(ID) (using the full DXA-driven inertial parameters averaged across all participants), 2) examine associations between full DXA-driven kinetics and body mass index (BMI) and 3) examine associations between full DXA-driven kinetics and segment mass index (SMI). Eighteen 10- to 11- year-olds pitched 10 fastballs. DXA scans were conducted and examined to obtain 3D inertial parameters of the upper arm, forearm, and hand. Full DXA-driven and scaled inertial parameters were compared using paired t-tests. Pitching arm kinetic predictions calculated with the four methods (i.e. scaled ID, DXA mass-driven ID, full DXA-driven ID, and DXA scaled ID) were compared using a repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc tests. The major results were that 1) full DXA-driven participant specific inertial parameters differed from scaled inertial parameters 2) kinetic predictions significantly varied by method and 3) full DXA-driven ID predictions for shoulder compression force and shoulder internal rotation torque were significantly associated with BMI and/or SMI.