Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Electrical Engineering


Electrical Engineering


Vladimir Prodanov


Parametric acoustic arrays are ultrasonic-based loudspeakers that produce highly directive audio. The audio must first be preprocessed and modulated into an ultrasonic carrier before being emitted into the air, where it will self-demodulate in the far field. The resulting audio wave is proportional to the double time-derivative of the square of the modulation envelope. This thesis presents a fully analog processor which encodes the audio into two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signals in quadrature phase and sums them together to produce a Single Sideband (SSB) spectrum around the fundamental frequency of the PWM signals. The two signals are modulated between 8% and 24% duty cycle to maintain a quasi-linear relationship between the duty cycle and the output signal level. This also allows the signals to sum without overlapping each other, maintaining a two-level output. The system drives a network of narrowband transducers with a center frequency equal to the PWM fundamental. Because the transducers are voltage driven, they have a bandpass frequency response which behaves as a first-order integrator on the SSB signal, eliminating the need for two integrators in the processor. Results show that the “SSB-PWM” output wave has a consistent 20-30dB difference in magnitude between the upper sideband and lower sideband. In simulation, a single tone test shows higher total harmonic distortion for lower frequencies and higher modulation depth. A two-tone test creates a 2nd order intermodulation term that increases with the frequencies of the input signals.