Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Animal Science


Animal Science


David Vagnoni


Utilizing local by-products can serve to significantly reduce the current feed costs for ruminant producers. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate the effects of chemical and bacterial inoculants in combination with ensiling, on the nutritional value and ensiling compatibility of olive pomace (OP) and (2) to identify the most biologically favorable treatment and ensiling day of OP for feeding to cattle. Freshly centrifuged OP (Olivas de Oro Olive Company, Creston, CA) was treated with one of four treatments: (1) no additives (control; CONT); (2) urea applied at 5% of DM (UREA; Agrium U.S. Inc, Loveland, CO); (3) SiloSolve MC (SS; a mixture of Enterococcus faecium M74, Lactococcus lactis SR3.54, and Lactobacillus plantarum CH6072 applied at 1.5 x 105 cfu/g of fresh forage; Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark); (4) SiloSolve MC applied at the same rate as treatment 3 with calcium oxide (CAO; Flinn Scientific, Batavia, IL) applied at 5% of DM. Treated OP was ensiled in quintuplicates into 20-L laboratory silos with vents, which were sealed for 2, 10, 60, and 120 d in a completely randomized design. At 0 d, DM was 2 and 5% higher for UREA and CAO, respectively, while ash and pH were highest for CAO. Fat tended to be higher for SS and CP was highest for UREA by 60 d (23.8%). CAO had significantly lower fiber portions, ethanol and yeasts (P < 0.05), and higher acetic acid than CONT. No significant differences were observed at 12 and 24 h in situ compared to CONT, yet at 48 h, NDFD was greatest for CONT and SS (P < 0.001). Lactic acid increase with prolonged ensiling with UREA having the highest content at 120 d (0.716 %) and acetic decreased for CONT, SS, and CAO. SS contained the most LAB (8.5 log cfu/ fresh g). Yeasts, molds, and sugars significantly decreased with ensiling. In conclusion, OP was determined to be a viable nutritional source for ruminants given its chemical composition and effective preservation after 120 d of ensiling that could be improved with chemical and bacterial inoculants.

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