Available at: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/theses/1877
Date of Award
MS in Aerospace Engineering
Recent interest surrounding large scale satellite constellations has increased analysis efforts to create the most efficient designs. Multiple studies have successfully optimized constellation patterns using equations of motion propagation methods and genetic algorithms to arrive at optimal solutions. However, these approaches are computationally expensive for large scale constellations, making them impractical for quick iterative design analysis. Therefore, a minimalist algorithm and efficient computational method could be used to improve solution times. This thesis will provide a tool for single target constellation optimization using spherical trigonometry propagation, and an evolutionary genetic algorithm based on a multi-objective optimization function. Each constellation will be evaluated on a normalized fitness scale to determine optimization. The performance objective functions are based on average coverage time, average revisits, and a minimized number of satellites. To adhere to a wider audience, this design tool was written using traditional Matlab, and does not require any additional toolboxes.
To create an efficient design tool, spherical trigonometry propagation will be utilized to evaluate constellations for both coverage time and revisits over a single target. This approach was chosen to avoid solving complex ordinary differential equations for each satellite over a long period of time. By converting the satellite and planetary target into vectors of latitude and longitude in a common celestial sphere (i.e. ECI), the angle can be calculated between each set of vectors in three-dimensional space. A comparison of angle against a maximum view angle, , controlled by the elevation angle of the target and the satellite’s altitude, will determine coverage time and number of revisits during a single orbital period.
Traditional constellations are defined by an altitude (a), inclination (I), and Walker Delta Pattern notation: T/P/F. Where T represents the number of satellites, P is the number of orbital planes, and F indirectly defines the number of adjacent planes with satellite offsets. Assuming circular orbits, these five parameters outline any possible constellation design. The optimization algorithm will use these parameters as evolutionary traits to iterate through the solutions space. This process will pass down the best traits from one generation to the next, slowly evolving and converging the population towards an optimal solution. Utilizing tournament style selection, multi-parent recombination, and mutation techniques, each generation of children will improve on the last by evaluating the three performance objectives listed. The evolutionary algorithm will iterate through 100 generations (G) with a population (n) of 100.
The results of this study explore optimal constellation designs for seven targets evenly spaced from 0° to 90° latitude on Earth, Mars and Jupiter. Each test case reports the top ten constellations found based on optimal fitness. Scatterplots of the constellation design solution space and the multi-objective fitness function breakdown are provided to showcase convergence of the evolutionary genetic algorithm. The results highlight the ratio between constellation altitude and planetary radius as the most influential aspects for achieving optimal constellations due to the increased field of view ratio achievable on smaller planetary bodies. The multi-objective fitness function however, influences constellation design the most because it is the main optimization driver. All future constellation optimization problems should critically determine the best multi-objective fitness function needed for a specific study or mission.