Available at: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/theses/1821
Date of Award
MS in Agriculture - Food Science and Nutrition
Food Science and Nutrition
The perception of wine’s quality is directly influenced by its color. Anthocyanin molecules are responsible for imparting color to red wines. They are extracted from grape skins during alcoholic fermentation. This work compares the effects of three parameters: berry integrity, enzyme addition, and fermentation temperature, on phenolic compound extraction (total phenol, tannin and anthocyanin) during the production of Paso Robles’ Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Analyses on phenolic compounds were completed during alcoholic fermentation and barrel aging over the course of eighteen months. Berry integrity compared the degree of berry crushing (whole destemmed berries versus fully crushed berries). Results showed that phenolic compound content after alcoholic fermentation seem to be unaffected by this parameter, while minor increases in total phenol concentration (3%) and tannin concentration (3%) during barrel aging were observed. Adding pectinase-rich macerating enzymes increased the total phenols by 8.7 and 21.0% to the 2010 and 2011 vintage, respectively, and tannin concentrations by 20.8 and 48.8%, respectively, during barrel aging. Alcoholic fermentation temperature of 25.0°C was compared to a fermentation temperature of 32.2°C in the 2011 vintage. When fermented at 32.2°C, concentrations of total phenol and tannin were significantly increased (20.6% and 28.9%, for the 2010 and 2011 vintages, respectively) when compared to 25.0°C. A cooler fermentation temperature led to 57.5% greater anthocyanin concentration throughout barrel aging. The results suggested that fermenting berries at a cooler temperature (25.0°C) increased anthocyanin levels and decreased total phenol and tannin concentration, which are desired outcomes for Paso Robles’ Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality.