Available at: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/theses/1641
Date of Award
MS in Agriculture - Food Science and Nutrition
Food Science and Nutrition
Background: Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in pregnant women in developing countries and can result in adverse effects to both the mother and infant. Multiple micronutrient supplements or supplementary foods may be a way to combat micronutrient deficiencies.
Objective: To assess change in micronutrient and protein levels in moderately malnourished pregnant Malawian women after receiving one of three nutritional interventions.
Methods: Serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, zinc, albumin and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured in pregnant women with MUAC >20.6 cm and
Results: Baseline micronutrient concentrations indicated high rates of deficiency in zinc (29-39%) and albumin (37-46%), and marginal status of retinol (26-37%) and vitamin D (31-32%). Adjusted mean changes in vitamin B12 concentrations from week 0 to week 10 were -17.1, -36.1, and -52.9 pg/mL for RUSF, CSB-UNIMMAP, and CSB-IFA, respectively (p=0.007). Adjusted mean changes in vitamin D concentrations from week 0 to week 10 were 6.1, 3.1, and 1.7 ng/mL for RUSF, CSB-UNIMMAP, and CSB-IFA, respectively (p=0.007). Adjusted mean changes in folate concentrations from week 0 to week 10 were 2.2, 1.7, and 4.0 ng/mL for RUSF, CSB-UNIMMAP, and CSB-IFA, respectively (p=0.37 for effect of treatment; p=0.06 for the interaction effect of time*treatment). Changes in ferritin, zinc, albumin, retinol, and CRP were not significantly different between treatment groups.
Conclusions: Deficiencies in zinc and albumin, and marginal status of vitamin D and retinol, are common among this population of moderately malnourished pregnant Malawian women. Significant changes in vitamin D and vitamin B12were observed from week 0 to week 10, with the RUSF group having the greatest improvements compared to the CSB-UNIMMAP and CSB-IFA treatments.