Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Polymers and Coatings


Chemistry & Biochemistry


Raymond Fernando


Interior flat, white latex paint is a common coating applied to walls around the world. Development of a coating with one coat hide capability is a pinnacle achievement for paint formulators as it has the potential to save consumers both time and money. One coat paints already exist on the market, but they are limited in color, coverage, and often have many disclaimers. Work done was part of a project initiated by ChemoursTM Titanium Technologies.

The goal of the project presented in this article was to create an interior flat, white latex paint that yields a spread rate of greater than 400 ft2/gal., which is advertised by many below critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC) commercial paints. In order to achieve this goal, an above CPVC paint with a high TiO2 content was created and continuously improved. Improvement of the formulation involved numerous experimental variations including adjustments to the hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) molecular weight, dispersant chemistry, latex chemistry, TiO2 concentration, extender package, and rheology modifier type. The sheen value, relative light scattering, and spread rate were the main measurements conducted in order to judge formulation improvement.

Complications with the spread rate procedure forced its adaptation in order to collect less variable data with the high density, shear thinning formulations. It was found that shorter opacity charts yielded more precise spread rate data than the longer opacity charts. An attempt at correlating rheology with sheen development resulted in the conclusion that the pigment and extender particle package is the greatest driving factor behind sheen reduction. The rheology modifier type and dispersant chemistry did not affect the flatness of the paint nearly as much. A Keyence VR-3000 series One-Shot 3D Measuring Macroscope was used to show that surface roughness does not directly correlate to the sheen value when a number of flat paints with different sheens were analyzed.

This project is an ongoing effort and the information contained in this document will substantially help future development.