Postprint version. Published in Pediatric Obesity, Volume 15, Issue 12, December 1, 2020.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12687.
Background: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides enough formula to meet the known nutritional needs of infants up to 6 months of age whose mothers report not breastfeeding, but many mothers report WIC providing insufficient formula, indicating potential overfeeding.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of potential overfeeding among formula-feeding WIC participants and identify associated factors.
Methods: Potential overfeeding was identified among participants of the longitudinal Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (ITFPS-2) receiving the fully formula feeding WIC infant package at 1 month of age (n = 1235, weighted n = 197 079). Associations of potential overfeeding with caloric intake, weight and participant characteristics were assessed.
Results: Potential overfeeding was identified among 37.41% (95% CI = 33.57- 41.25%) of fully formula-feeding infants. Potentially overfed infants were 0.18 kg heavier (P-value = .01), consumed 26 more calories daily (P-value = .004) and were more likely Non-Hispanic White or English-speaking Hispanic (P-value = .007) and highly active at 5 months of age (P-value = .01). Mothers of potentially overfed infants were less likely to agree that breastfeeding is easier than bottle feeding, only mothers can feed breastfed infants, turning away from the bottle indicates satiation, and crying always indicates hunger (P-values .04, .002, .04 and .04 respectively), and more likely to report WIC provides insufficient formula early (1-5 months, P-value <.0001) and late (6-13 months, P-value = .007) in infancy.
Conclusions: Potential overfeeding occurs in 37% of fully formula-feeding infant WIC-participants <6 months old. Mothers of these infants may benefit from additional education about the formula needs of their infants and how to recognize infant satiation cues.
Kinesiology | Public Health
© 2020 World Obesity Federation
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