Date of Award
MS in Agriculture - Plant Protection Science
Horticulture and Crop Science
In the Central Coast of California, USA, wine grape growers are making efforts to identify weed control practices that promote biodiversity in their vineyards while maintaining yields. A field study was conducted in Paso Robles, CA in 2006 and 2007 evaluating the effect on Zinfandel grape-vine growth and production, groundcover plant, and ground dwelling arthropod communities of five weed control practices: 1) flumioxazin, 2) simazine, 3) cultivation, 4) cover crop, and 5) untreated control.
The herbicide treatments had the lowest weed biomass followed by the cultivation, being approximately 10 and 2 times lower than the weed biomass of either the cover crop or untreated control treatments respectively. However, the differences in grape yield were not as evident. In 2006, a rainy year, the herbicides and cultivation treatments did not differ in grape yield, but the cover crop and untreated control had a reduction of approximately 20% compared with the other treatments. In 2007, a dry year, in comparison to the herbicide treatments, the grape yield reductions of cultivation were around 22%, and of the cover crop and untreated control around 48%. Although the cover crop reduced grape yield, it suppressed weed species considered important such as horseweed, panicle willowherb, scarlet pimpernel, and sowthistle. The cover crop, cultivation and untreated control had 4 to 50 times higher plant density and more than 15 times higher plant diversity compared to the herbicide treatments. The arthropod abundance differed among treatments only in 2007 being higher in the cover crop and untreated control. Also, there was a positive relationship
between plant and arthropod diversity (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.02 in 2006; r2 = 0.64, P < 0.001 in 2007). Laboratory seed predation tests of the two most frequently captured carabid beetles, Calathus ruficollis and Tanystoma maculicolle, indicated their preferences for Brassica nigra and Capsella bursa-pastoris, which are considered common weed species in the region. Under field conditions, treatments with higher plant diversity and biomass favoured arthropod seed predation of these weeds, which was 20-40% in the cover crop and untreated control, doubling the predation observed in the herbicide treatments. The cultivation treatment balanced the benefits of promoting diversity while minimizing yield reductions due to weed competition.
Our data indicated that the critical period of weed competition for Zinfandel grape vines occurred during budbreak-bloom period. Also, it was concluded that vines can tolerate a certain amount of weed competition, and that properly timing one pass post-emergence control tactics (e.g. cultivation or POST herbicides) could provide the necessary level of control to obtain the desired yields. However, under limited soil moisture conditions, the use of PRE herbicides could prove important to maintain vine yield and vigor. The results also illustrate how weed management practices that promote higher plant diversity and density have the potential to yield ecological services within vineyards by favoring the diversity and activity of other organisms.