Published in Journal of Experiential Education, Volume 28, Issue 2, January 1, 2005, pages 123-146.
Means-end theory provides a useful approach for characterizing the relationship among the attributes or components of an experiential education course (the "means"), the benefits, or the outcomes associated with these attributes/course components, and the personal values (the "ends") these outcomes help to reinforce for course participants. The purpose of this article is to show how this "means-end" perspective can enhance our understanding of the outcomes associated with outdoor adventure programming. A self-administered questionnaire designed to identify the linkages among program attributes (i.e., course components), course outcomes, and personal values was administered to a sample of 216 Outward Bound course participants. Analysis of the data provided useful insights into the outcomes associated with Outward Bound course experiences and with specific course components. The results can assist experiential educators in linking outdoor adventure course outcomes to course components, and in marketing course programs to potential clients.
Recreation, Parks and Tourism Administration