Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Mechanical Engineering


Mechanical Engineering


Andrew J. Kean


Portable electric spas are typically the largest electrical load in homes that have one. In recent years, the California Energy Commission’s California code of regulations, Title 20 has been revised to regulate the maximum allowable standby power for a portable electric spa based on the spa volume. The goal of this regulation is to require improvements to the lowest performing models, for which simple and cost effective improvements are readily available, without eliminating average or better performing products.

In this research, the standby power of twenty seven portable electric spas was measured and compared to the Title 20 requirement. These tests resulted in nine of the twenty seven spas not meeting the allowable standby power. Analysis demonstrates that simple and inexpensive improvements to these nine spas would likely cause the spas to pass the Title 20 requirement. Additionally, temperature normalization developed in this research have been adopted by the California Energy Commission and included in revisions to Title 20.