Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of City and Regional Planning


City and Regional Planning


Umut Toker


Throughout history planning codes and standards have been used to regulate the built environment for health, power, order, and economic reasons. More recently, in the urban design and planning field, planning codes and standards have emerged to become tools in the process of “placemaking”. The concept of placemaking builds from the desire of humans to create places, not spaces, which are unique, attractive, identifiable, and memorable. It is a concept that is comprised of visual and social components, recognizing the need for both in the creation of successful places. In the field of urban design and planning, form-based codes (FBCs) and design guidelines have emerged to become two types of planning tools used in the process of placemaking. This study explores the relationship between FBCs, design guidelines, and placemaking, investigating it through an extensive literature review, and then in the context of the case of Hayward, California through an update of the City’s Downtown design requirements and guidelines. To frame the update of the Hayward’s Downtown design requirements and guidelines this study used an exploratory methodology that combined quantitative and qualitative methods. Archival research was conducted to provide a historical narrative of the City and the Downtown area and a documents analysis was conducted to reveal information about existing Downtown policies and programs. Community participation through the crowdsourcing platform of MindMixer was used to collect community input and feedback about concepts of place in Downtown. The data analysis and findings from these methods were combined with findings from the literature review to formulate recommendations that were used in the update of Hayward’s Downtown design requirements and guidelines document. Keywords: