Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Animal Science


Animal Science


Dr. Robert Delmore


In the meat science industry the primary method used to determine the binding capabilities of a raw material is to reference the binding index created by Carpenter and Saffle (1964). This index is primarily based on the emulsification capabilities of meats and does not consider texture. As texture is one of the principal factors in determining acceptability of foods (Bourne, 1978), a testing method that captures textural attributes of raw materials is essential. This work was developed to capture raw material texture and cooking loss in a relatively quick manner.

Textural properties of cooked beef batters using two different salt levels (0.00% and 1.80%) and five different raw materials (finely textured beef (FTB), 90/10 trim, bull chuck meat, shank meat, and boneless trimmed finely textured beef (BTFT)) were evaluated. Combinations of raw material and salt (N= 46) were analyzed using texture profile analysis. Texture profile analysis parameters: hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness were analyzed. Samples were also analyzed for pH, fat, moisture, protein, and cook loss.

Texture profile analysis parameters: hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess showed similar patterns when mean values were ranked highest to lowest. Within hardness texture parameter finely textured beef had a lower (P < 0.05) mean with a value of 25.46N. The raw material with a higher (P < 0.05) mean hardness value was shown to be beef shank meat with a mean of 84.47N. Gumminess texture parameter showed a very similar pattern with FTB having the lowest mean value (1710.25) and shank meat showing the highest mean value (6261.07). Cohesiveness texture parameter showed that BTFT had the lowest (P < 0.05) mean value (0.63) and the highest mean value of (0.73). A consistent pattern of FTB as the lowest mean value and shank meat as the highest mean value was observed.