Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Food Science and Nutrition


Food Science and Nutrition


Hany Khalil



Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Providing additional calories in the form of an RTE bar to endurance athletes will increase performance and muscle re-synthesis, reduce muscle breakdown, and shorten recovery time. An RTE bar containing a blend of dairy proteins and carbohydrates will create a product with superior functionality, including bioactive and immunity enhancing properties from dairy derived ingredients. The protein will provide benefits in the form of easily digestible calories, essential amino acids and physical satiate.

A formulation was developed and optimized, resulting in a final product that meets the required nutritional profile: 400kcal, 25grams protein per 100 gram serving size. The desired physical characteristics were achieved through processing by both conventional baking and freeze drying. The latter method improves the stability and functionality of the RTE bar.

In order to meet the protein requirements of the RTE bar without compromising sensory properties, a unique protein source was developed. Using high concentrations of conventional protein sources like Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) resulted in stale off-flavors and unappealing textures. Milk Protein Precipitate (MPP) was developed for this formulation. MPP is a curd-like ingredient created through the combined heat and acid precipitation of dairy proteins. MPP can be used effectively in high concentrations provides a subtle dairy flavor. MPP delivers a balance of casein and whey, similar to that found in milk.

The effectiveness of the RTE bar formulation as a post exercise recovery food was evaluated in a human studies experiment conducted on the Cal Poly campus. The human subjects study utilized 34 Cal Poly students in a single-blind cross-over design experiment. The study compared the effects of this high protein RTE bar against a calorically equal carbohydrate bar. The bars were administered after subjects completed the pre-assigned hikes on three consecutive days. Following the cross-over design, subjects received the alternate bar in the second period of the experiment. Several blood markers involved in metabolism and inflammation were measured before and after the two treatment periods. No blood marker showed a statistically significant difference between bars, but several trends were observed. Body weight and fat percent were also unaffected by bar composition.