Date of Award



Biomedical and General Engineering


Lanny V. Griffin


Titanium has been widely used for dental implants, and in particular, roughened titanium surfaces have provided a means for increasing bone apposition and strengthening the implant-to-bone interface. Finding a way to further increase osseointegration is important because there is a significant clinical benefit to patients if a stable anchor can be established instead of anchoring orthodontic hardware to the molars. In this study, the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the ability of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) to osseointegrate was investigated. The temporary anchorage devices (TADs) used in this study were manufactured from commercially pure titanium and divided into 2 types of treatments: (1) sandblasted and acid-etched (i.e. the control) and (2) sandblasted and acid-etched treated with Medtronic INFUSE® Bone Graft (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 placed on an absorbable collagen sponge). The implants were placed on the cranial bones of 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation 6 weeks following surgery for histological examination and biomechanical testing. The results from visual inspection and biomechanical testing showed that the sandblasted and acid-etched TADs treated with rhBMP-2 promoted better osseointegration than TADs that were only sandblasted and acid-etched. Specifically, surface modified TADs treated with rhBMP-2 on bottom showed an increased surface coverage by bone and an increase in the adhesion strength at the TAD-to-bone interface.