Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Packaging Value Chain


Orfalea College of Business


Joongmin Shin

Advisor Department

Industrial Technology

Advisor College

Orfalea College of Business


A comparison analysis conducted via COMPASS life cycle analysis software has indicated that a one-way crate design, rather than a reusable crate design, is in fact the more environmentally friendly packaging system. These results can be interpreted differently, however, as the manufacturer of said crate designs must confirm what impact indicators they would like to reference as environmental goalposts. The conducted analysis provides insight into what the environmental impacts of each packaging system look like as packaging at all three system levels has been identified as a means of reducing environmental impacts globally. As such, the manufacturer of said crate designs would like to establish a baseline understanding of what the environmental impact of their products look like. Version 3.5 of COMPASS LCA software was utilized, which references ecoinvent 3.9.1 LCA databases as well as U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (USLCI) LCA methodologies. These findings are significant as they affirm that all packaging system inputs and product life-cycle phases must be carefully considered as they impact every impact indicator score differently.