Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Computer Science


Computer Science


College of Engineering


Zoë Wood

Advisor Department

Computer Science

Advisor College

College of Engineering


We present a technique for out-of-core GPU path tracing of arbitrarily large scenes that is compatible with hardware-accelerated ray-tracing. Our technique improves upon previous works by subdividing the scene spatially into streamable chunks that are loaded using a priority system that maximizes ray throughput and minimizes GPU memory usage. This allows for arbitrarily large scaling of scene complexity. Our system required under 19 minutes to render a solid color version of Disney's Moana Island scene (39.3 million instances, 261.1 million unique quads, and 82.4 billion instanced quads at a resolution of 1024x429 and 1024spp on an RTX 5000 (24GB memory total, 22GB used, 13GB geometry cache, with the remainder for temporary buffers and storage) (Wald et al.). As a scalability test, our system rendered 26 Moana Island scenes without multi-level instancing (1.02 billion instances, 2.14 trillion instanced quads, ~230GB if all resident) in under 1h:28m. Compared to state-of-the-art hardware-accelerated renders of the Moana Island scene, our system can render larger scenes on a single GPU. Our system is faster than the previous out-of-core approach and is able to render larger scenes than previous in-core approaches given the same memory constraints (Hellmuth, Zellman et al, Wald).