Date of Award


Degree Name

MS in Agriculture - Dairy Products Technology


Dairy Science


Phillip Tong


Previous studies on the use of nonfat dry milk, whey protein concentrate 34 and lactose powders in processed cheeses or cheese analogs found that increasing the percentage of lactose was associated with an increase in browning and crystallization. There has been little work done of the effects of lactose in processed cheese functionality. Therefore, the objective of this research is to build on and understand the effects of lactose from by three commercially produced dairy powders (nonfat dry milk (NFDM), whey protein concentrate 34 (WPC), lactose) and two different emulsifying salts on properties of processed cheese. Processed cheeses were made using either trisodium citrate or disodium phosphate dihydrate emulsifiers and standardized to lactose levels of 4 or 8 percent by weight. Processed cheeses were made with natural cheese aged at 4oC for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. For each age of natural cheese, processed cheeses were made in triplicates for each treatment. A small batch (5 lb) Stephan single blade cooker in a pilot plant setting was used to conduct the experiments. The cheeses were tested within a week of manufacture for moisture by microwave method, pH, melt by Arnott melt test, hardness and cohesiveness by texture profile analysis, and browning by ImageJ software. The pH of the cheeses showed that there was a significant difference (