The Protracted Holocene Extinction of California's Flightless Sea Duck (Chendytes lawi) and its Implications for the Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis
Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 105, Issue 11, March 18, 2008, pages 4105-4108.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0711140105.
Bones of the flightless sea duck (Chendytes lawi) from 14 archaeological sites along the California coast indicate that humans hunted the species for at least 8,000 years before it was driven to extinction. Direct 14C dates on Chendytes bones show that the duck was exploited on the southern California islands as early as ≈ 11,150-10,280 calendar years B.P., and on the mainland by at least 8,500 calendar years B.P. The youngest direct date of 2,720-2,350 calendar years B.P., combined with the absence of Chendytes bones from hundreds of late Holocene sites, suggests that the species was extinct by ≈2,400 years ago. Although the extinction of Chendytes clearly resulted from human overhunting, its demise raises questions about the Pleistocene overkill model, which suggests that megafauna were driven to extinction in a blitzkrieg fashion by Native Americans ≈13,000 years ago. That the extermination of Chendytes was so protracted and archaeologically visible suggests that, if the terminal Pleistocene megafauna extinctions were primarily the result of human exploitation, there should also be a long and readily detectable archaeological record of their demise. The brief window now attributed to the Clovis culture (≈13,300-12,900 B.P.) seems inconsistent with an overhunting event.
Social and Behavioral Sciences
2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.