College - Author 1

College of Science and Mathematics

Department - Author 1

Physics Department

Degree Name - Author 1

BS in Physics



Primary Advisor

Oleg Kogan, College of Science and Mathematics, Physics Department


We investigate the role of delay in the collective dynamics of particles that swarm in space and possess an internal oscillatory degree of freedom, called swarmalators. Swarmalators were introduced recently by O’Keeffe, Hong, and Strogatz in Nature Communications 8, 1504 (2017). The addition of a time delay into the system of swarmalators was motivated by the biology of early embryonic development. This delay leads to a rich phenomenology, which includes two new collective states, which we call "semi-static crystal" and "boiling". In the semi-static crystal state, all particles in a cluster undergo decaying radial oscillations completely in phase with one another (so, the cluster breathes). After these oscillations decay, the swarm becomes a mostly static semi-crystal. In the boiling state, particles close to the surface of the cluster execute non-decaying convective-like motions (so, the cluster boils). Within a range of negative phase coupling strengths, there is a transition from the boiling to the breathing state as delay time is increased. We investigate the nature of this transition.