Postprint version. Published in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 243, September 30, 2020.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106910.
Seagrasses influence local hydrodynamics by inducing drag on the flow and dampening near-bed velocities and wave energy. When seagrasses are lost, near-bed currents and wave energy can increase, which enhances bottom shear stresses, destabilizes sediment, and promotes suspension and erosion. Though seagrasses are being lost rapidly globally, the magnitude of change in sediment stabilization following ecosystem-wide eelgrass loss has rarely been measured. In this study, we explored the geomorphological changes associated with an unprecedented estuary-wide collapse of a seagrass (eelgrass, Zostera marina) in Morro Bay, CA, USA. Morro Bay has historically suffered from accelerated sedimentation and accretion. However, following massive eelgrass loss since 2010, over 90% of locations that previously had eelgrass experienced erosion. Elevation losses (erosion) reached 0.50 m in some places (mean loss of 0.10 m) with as much as a 50% decrease (median decrease of 13.6%) in elevation (i.e., increase in depth) compared to pre-decline levels. In comparison, the mouth of the estuary, where eelgrass was largely retained, had only 27.7% of the locations with prior eelgrass experiencing erosion and underwent a mean elevation increase (accretion) of 0.32 m. Thus, the loss of eelgrass appears to have altered dynamics at the seabed and transitioned large regions of the estuary from an environment that promotes deposition and accretion to one that promotes suspension and erosion. Large-scale erosion following seagrass loss may be predictive of future shoreline and coastal habitat changes and is likely to be exacerbated by increased storm surge and sea level rise expected with climate change.
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Available for download on Friday, September 30, 2022