Published in Optics Express, Volume 13, Issue 5, January 1, 2005, pages 1424-1447.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Glen Gillen was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.001424.
Using nonparaxial vector diffraction theory derived using the Hertz vector formalism, integral expressions for the electric and magnetic field components of light within and beyond an apertured plane are obtained for an incident plane wave. For linearly polarized light incident on a circular aperture, the integrals for the field components and for the Poynting vector are numerically evaluated. By further two-dimensional integration of a Poynting vector component, the total transmission of a circular aperture is determined as a function of the aperture radius to wavelength ratio. The validity of using Kirchhoff boundary conditions in the aperture plane is also examined in detail.
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