This study demonstrates the early transient dynamic loading on teeth within a fixed-axis gear transmission arising from backlash and geometric manufacturing errors by utilizing a non-linear multi-body dynamics software model. Selection of the non-linear contact parameters such as the stiffness, force exponent, damping, and friction coefficients are presented for a practical transmission. Backlash between gear teeth which is essential to provide better lubrication on tooth surfaces and to eliminate interference is included as a defect and a necessary part of transmission design. Torsional vibration is shown to cause teeth separation and double-sided impacts in unloaded and lightly loaded gearing drives. Vibration and impact force distinctions between backlash and combinations of transmission errors are demonstrated under different initial velocities and load conditions. Additionally, the loading dynamics of a crank-slider mechanism with two-stage gear driving train is analyzed. The backlash and manufacturing errors in the first stage of the gear train are distinct from those of the second stage. By analyzing the signal at a location between the two stages, the mutually affected impact forces are observed from different gear pairs, a phenomenon not observed from single pair of gears.


Mechanical Engineering



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