The Forum: Journal of History

Current Issue: Volume 15, Issue 1 (2023) Spring 2023

Editor's Note

The study of history provides an unparalleled opportunity to gaze into another world, one that is simultaneously alien and intimately familiar to us—the past. Primary sources offer a narrow but unfiltered glimpse into this world and are the vehicle through which original historical research is conducted. The authors you are about to read have built upon the foundation of their primary sources to produce insightful works of history which bring to light the struggles, triumphs, and hardships of people from across times and cultures. Each student featured in this edition of The Forum spent arduous hours combing through archives to find their primary source, after which the weeks and months of equally arduous work began. Even more time, energy, and effort was spent writing and refining these articles for your enjoyment. The dedication and care put into this edition, both by its authors and editorial team, has resulted in a collection of works that faithfully elucidate the lived experiences which together constitute history. This journal would not be possible, however, without the phenomenal faculty of the Cal Poly History Department. These professors offer unique courses grounded in their own research expertise that not only educate us but grant us the tools to further educate ourselves. As a result, students are able to make meaningfully important contributions to their chosen field. Our professors have also helped their students throughout the Forum’s editorial process, allowing them to truly shine. For this, I would like to thank all the individuals in the History Department. I would especially like to thank our faculty advisor, Dr. Lewis Call, and department administrative staff Denna Zamarron and Celine Realica. They have always provided unparalleled support to the journal and have been a lifeline for me personally over the past year. Finally, I gratefully send an extra special thank you to each and every one of the talented editors whom it was my privilege to work with on this edition. I relied on these ten editors’ expertise, discretion, and judgement to select works for final publication and provide constructive comments to every submission. The extreme care they brought to their work alongside their effort and determination is instrumental to the journal’s success. I hope you all greatly enjoy this year’s edition of The Forum, Volume 15.


Nishanth Narayan
Executive Editor, The Forum

Full Issue

Front Matter


Back Matter


Executive Editor
Nishanth Narayan
Senior Editor
Julia Taylor
Associate Editors
Amy Gavello
Collin Marfia
Emma Fay
Jack Mount
Jessica O'Leary
Kaelyn Bremer
Morgan Vonder Haar
Sarah McCandless
Tim Mullins