Modernism in planning and urban design led to the erosion of the traditional city's morphology. Samuels and Kantarek use the plan for Nowa Huta, a 1949 new town near Krakow, to point out the problems related to the introvert block, particularly walkability, connectivity, and the lack of direct entrances to the residences from the street. The introvert block type evolved into present-day gated communities.
Samuels, Ivor and Kantarek, Anna A.
"Streets are Not Enough: The Introverted Block as a Neglected Type,"
1, Article 16.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol15/iss1/16
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