During FY 1991, a remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics & Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, chargecoupled- device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald during July and August 1991, using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The tests provided a checkout of installation and operational logistics, prior to field deployment, as well as verification of accuracy and repeatability. In September and October 1991, the structured light sources were then deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces in November 1991. Surface maps were obtained in December 1991 of the bentonite clay caps. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness. Verification of clay cap thickness was required to support a Department of Energy (DOE) Removal Action Milestone defined in the Amended Consent Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Section 106 and 120. This report includes final results of the surface mapping campaign as well as a description of system components. Mapping system sensors and control hardware are described. Calibration and data acquisition methodology are described as well as the operator interface that facilitated these operations. The sensor system development was sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development, Robotics Technology Development Program. Field deployment in the K-65 silos was funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration.


Electrical and Computer Engineering



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