College - Author 1

College of Architecture and Environmental Design

Department - Author 1

Construction Management Department

Degree Name - Author 1

BS in Construction Management



Primary Advisor/Subject Matter Expert (SME)

Andrew Kline, College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Construction Management Department


Building performance and safety have always been a high concern in seismic areas, especially as certain building configurations and designs have proven inadequate and dangerous in large earthquakes. Building failures due to earthquake forces are combated by local seismic ordinances, which describe the types of buildings at risk and mandate when they are required to be seismically retrofitted. This paper investigates the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry and the necessity of seismically retrofitting buildings, particularly soft story wood frame, non-ductile concrete, and welded steel moment frame structures. This case study focuses on the voluntary seismic retrofit of a high-rise building in San Francisco, CA that was split into five project phases, and how the phasing impacted the structure, the client, and the general contractor. Through informal interviews with the project team, the phasing plan was evaluated to determine if the retrofit created a deeper understanding of the building structurally, allowed flexibility within the execution of the retrofit, and influenced parties’ risks. These findings are useful in demonstrating how phasing a retrofit can be advantageous and disadvantageous in future seismic retrofits.

lee-s-Posterboard.pdf (1322 kB)
Poster Board