College - Author 1

College of Architecture and Environmental Design

Department - Author 1

Construction Management Department

Degree Name - Author 1

BS in Construction Management



Primary Advisor/Subject Matter Expert (SME)

Philip Barlow, College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Construction Management Department


This paper is an analysis of the costs and benefits of estimating at different union labor rates, based on the location of the project and which jurisdiction the project falls in. The basis of the research is a case study of a Bay Area mechanical contractor (Contractor X) which previously estimated at a single labor rate, and recently developed variable estimating. Through that case study, best practices are developed for union pipe trade estimating. The results of the case study show that estimating protocol should be determined on a project by project basis, and company resources and manpower have to be heavily considered.