In most cases, analysis to determine component demands for seismic design of concrete buildings employs linear elastic models in which reduced, effective component stiffnesses are used. This document i) reviews the recommendations for defining the effective flexural, shear and axial stiffness of concrete walls that are included in current design codes, standards and guidelines and ii) compares these recommendations with stiffness expressions derived directly from experimental data by the authors and others. Section 2 reviews existing empirically derived and code‐, standard‐, and guideline‐based expressions for the effective stiffness of concrete walls. Section 3 presents the process used by the authors to compute effective stiffness values from laboratory data. Sections 4 through 6 present effective stiffness values derived from laboratory test data for C‐shaped wall specimens tested as part of this study, for planar wall specimens tested by the authors as part of a previous study, and for non‐planar wall specimens tested by others. Section 7 presents the results of a study in which recommended effective stiffness values were used to compute the yield displacements of seven coupled‐wall specimens tested in the laboratory by the authors and others. Section 8 summarizes the results of this investigation.


Architectural Engineering

Number of Pages


Publisher statement

NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Anahid Behrouzi was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.



URL: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/aen_fac/99