The consolidation of grout in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls is labor-intensive. Also, the grout’s Portland cement content has a high embodied energy demand – a non-sustainable characteristic. For the labor-intensive issue, chemical admixture self-consolidating grouts have been used in walls 12.67 ft. (3.86 m) tall, however the chemical additive can impose new limitations on the grout (non-robust characteristics). No admixture self-consolidating grout with high percentage Portland cement replacement have potential for robust and sustainable application. This paper reports on the consolidation of no admixture self-consolidating grout made by substituting high percentages of Portland cement with Type-F fly ash and/or GGBFS. The percent replacement ranged from 50% to 80% by volume. Single lift test CMU walls were 12.67 ft. (3.86 m) tall. The relative reinforcement consolidation was assessed by comparison to traditional mechanically consolidated grout and also compared to criteria of ACI technical notes for shotcrete. Cure time was 125 days.


Architectural Engineering



URL: https://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/aen_fac/83