Postprint version. Published in Engineering Structures, Volume 225, January 1, 2020, pages 1-20.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111289.
Reinforced concrete structural walls are commonly used as the primary lateral load resisting system in modern buildings constructed in high seismic regions. Most walls in high-rise buildings are C-shaped to accommodate elevators or other architectural features. C-shaped walls have complex loading and response including: (1) symmetric response in the direction of the web, (2) asymmetric response in the direction of the flange and (3) high compression and shear demands when used as a pier in a coupled-wall configuration. A research study was conducted on C-shaped walls tested under (1) uni-directional and (2) bi-directional loading of an isolated walls and (3) bi-directional loading of a c-shaped pier in a coupled wall system. Each of the walls failed in flexure with strength loss resulting from low-cycle fatigue of the boundary element longitudinal reinforcement with buckling followed by fracture. The damage progression was as follows: (1) cracking at the wall-foundation interface, (2) concrete spalling in the web, (3) buckling and fracture of web reinforcement, (4) spalling in the flanges, (5) buckling and fracture of the bars in the boundary elements. Concrete spalling and steel bar damage occurred at lower strong-axis drift levels for the bi-directionally loaded, resulting in lower drift capacities for these loading protocols. However, for the strong-axis direction, bi-directional loading does not reduce flexural or shear effective stiffness values suggesting that current values are appropriate for design and evaluation of buildings with c-shaped walls.
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