Postprint version. Published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 81, Issue 4, October 1, 2001, pages 711-727.
Copyright © 2001 American Psychological Association. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Carrie A. Langner was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1991.
A content analysis system for measuring positive concessions (offering concessions) and negative concessions (rejecting offered concessions) was introduced and validated through an archival study of government-to-government documents from 4 crises, 2 of which escalated to war and 2 of which were peacefully resolved. In the archival documents, concession making was positively associated with affiliation motivation and negatively associated with power motivation. A 2nd, laboratory experimental study confirmed these relationships and demonstrated priming effects of motive imagery and concession making, in a received diplomatic letter, on participants' responses. Finally, the motive imagery and concessions scores in participants' responses were related in predicted ways to their policy choices.