Degree Name

BS in Physics


Physics Department


Themis Mastoridis


The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (Hi-Lumi LHC) upgrade -- scheduled to be completed by 2025 -- will improve the existing LHC in many ways. One such upgrade is the addition of Crab Cavities (CCs). The CCs are resonant structures that provide strong transverse kicks to the circulating clouds of particles around each interaction region. As such, the CCs result in a head-on collision of the clouds and a large increase in event rate, leading to reduced statistical uncertainty and potentially faster discoveries. However, the CC field will be modulated by phase and amplitude noise which can have detrimental effects on beam quality. Of utmost concern is the increase in the particle cloud transverse size due to the noise action, which can lead to reduced collision rates or even loss of particles. The relationship between the noise spectrum and the size growth rate has been quantified with a theoretical model. This work presents simulation results using the Python multi-particle tracking package HEADTAIL to validate this model. The evolution of the particle cloud transverse distribution due to the noise is also investigated via HEADTAIL.