We show that Landau theory for the isotropic (I), nematic (N), smectic-A, and smectic-C phases generically, but not ubiquitously, implies "de Vries" behavior: i.e., a continuous A-C transition can occur with little layer contraction while the birefringence increases significantly once the system moves into the C phase. Our theory shows that 1st order A-C transitions are also possible. These transitions can be de Vries-like, but in general need not be. Generally, de Vries behavior occurs in models with unusually small orientational order and is preceded by a first order I-A transition. These results correspond well with experimental work to date.



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