Published in Optics Express, Volume 13, Issue 5, January 1, 2005, pages 1424-1447.
Copyright © 2005 Optical Society of America. This paper was published in Optics Express and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1364/OPEX.13.001424. Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Glen Gillen was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
Using nonparaxial vector diffraction theory derived using the Hertz vector formalism, integral expressions for the electric and magnetic field components of light within and beyond an apertured plane are obtained for an incident plane wave. For linearly polarized light incident on a circular aperture, the integrals for the field components and for the Poynting vector are numerically evaluated. By further two-dimensional integration of a Poynting vector component, the total transmission of a circular aperture is determined as a function of the aperture radius to wavelength ratio. The validity of using Kirchhoff boundary conditions in the aperture plane is also examined in detail.