Published in Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Volume 130, Issue 3, June 1, 2008, pages 031006-1-031006-11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2907754.
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A cartilage growth mixture (CGM) model is proposed to address limitations of a model used in a previous study. New stress constitutive equations for the solid matrix are derived and collagen (COL) remodeling is incorporated into the CGM model by allowing the intrinsic COL material constants to evolve during growth. An analytical validation protocol based on experimental data from a recent in vitro growth study is developed. Available data included measurements of tissue volume, biochemical composition, and tensile modulus for bovine calf articular cartilage (AC) explants harvested at three depths and incubated for 13 days in 20% fetal borine serum (FBS) and 20% FBS+ ß-aminopropionitrile. The proposed CGM model can match tissue biochemical content and volume exactly while predicting theoretical values of tensile moduli that do not significantly differ from experimental values. Also, theoretical values of a scalar COL remodeling factor are positively correlated with COL cross-link content, and mass growth functions are positively correlated with cell density. The results suggest that the CGM model may help us to guide in vitro growth protocols for AC tissue via the a priori prediction of geometric and biomechanical properties.