Published in Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II, Volume 44, Issue 4, April 1, 1997, pages 265-273.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Vladimir Prodanov was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.566643.
In this paper we describe a CMOS differential active load and show how it can be used to create various useful structures. Tunable current gain stages and current squaring circuits are discussed. Their connection to a differential pairbased transconductor results in broad-range tunable transconductor structures suitable for adaptive continuous-time filtering applications and a four-quadrant voltage multiplier.
Electrical and Computer Engineering
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