Published in Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II, Volume 44, Issue 4, April 1, 1997, pages 265-273.
Copyright © 1997 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/82.566643.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the author Vladimir Prodanov was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
In this paper we describe a CMOS differential active load and show how it can be used to create various useful structures. Tunable current gain stages and current squaring circuits are discussed. Their connection to a differential pairbased transconductor results in broad-range tunable transconductor structures suitable for adaptive continuous-time filtering applications and a four-quadrant voltage multiplier.
Electrical and Computer Engineering