Author ORCID Identifier

Andres Martinez: 0000-0002-2696-9165


We present a new method for fabricating three-dimensional paper-based fluidic devices that uses toner as a thermal adhesive to bond multiple layers of patterned paper together. The fabrication process is rapid, involves minimal equipment (a laser printer and a laminator) and produces complex channel networks with dimensions down to 1 mm. The devices can run multiple diagnostic assays on one or more samples simultaneously, can incorporate positive and negative controls and can be programmed to display the results of the assays in a variety of patterns. The patterns of the results can encode information, which could be used to identify counterfeit devices, identify samples, encrypt the results for patient privacy or monitor patient compliance.


Biochemistry | Chemistry

Number of Pages


Publisher statement

The definitive version is available at