Most seismic codes specify empirical formulas to estimate the fundamental vibration period of buildings. Evaluated first in this paper are the formulas specified in present U.S. codes using the available data on the fundamental period of buildings "measured" from their motions recorded during eight California earthquakes, starting with the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and ending with the 1994 Northridge earthquake. It is shown that current code formulas for estimating the fundamental period of concrete shear wall buildings are grossly inadequate. Subsequently, an improved formula is developed by calibrating a theoretical formula, derived using Dunkerley's method, against the measured period data through regression analysis. Also recommended is a factor to limit the period calculated by a "rational" analysis, such as Rayleigh's method.


Civil and Environmental Engineering



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