Postprint version. Published in Proceedings of the 2010 Conference of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute: Palm Springs, CA, May 16, 2010, pages 2492-2501.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1061/41114(371)257.
Comprehensive environmental models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are becoming an integral part of decision making processes for effective planning and management of natural resources. Before their use as decision making aid, however, models must be properly evaluated to improve their prediction accuracy and reduce the likelihood of making decisions that could lead to undesirable policy outcomes. Model evaluation refers to practices such as quality analysis of input data, sensitivity analysis, calibration and verification, and uncertainty analysis. Many methodologies have been developed for model evaluations over the years. One of the major limitations of the existing model evaluation methods, in particular model calibration methods, is their computational inefficiency, especially when used to calibrate comprehensive watershed simulation models. It may take weeks to months of CPU time, depending on the problem size, to successfully calibrate a comprehensive watershed simulation model on a standard PC. In this study, two sensitivity analysis methods and four calibration methods are used to evaluate SWAT to improve its streamflow prediction accuracy for the Morro Bay watershed located on the central coast of California. Parameter sensitivity analysis was performed using step-wise-regression analysis and the one-factor-at-a time screening method. Calibration was performed using PEST, Genetic Algorithms, the Shuffled Complex Evolution, and the Dynamically Dimensioned Search using observed data from multiple sites in the watershed. The model evaluation methods are compared in terms of their computational efficiency as well as effectiveness to determine “accurate” results. The developed SWAT model can be used to evaluate effectiveness of the Best Management Practices installed in the Morro Bay watershed, and to also prioritize sites where BMPs may be implemented in the future to further improve ecological integrity of the Morro Bay Estuary, which is one of the most important wetlands in California as it supports wide variety of habitats including numerous sensitive and endangered plant and animal species.
Civil and Environmental Engineering