Postprint version. Published in Earthquake Spectra, Volume 21, Issue 4, November 1, 2005, pages 1027-1041.
Copyright © 2005 Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1193/1.2085189.
The role of higher-“mode” pushover analyses in seismic analysis of buildings is examined in this paper. It is demonstrated that the higher-“mode” pushover curves reveal plastic hinge mechanisms that are not detected by the first-“mode” or other FEMA-356 force distributions, but these purely local mechanisms are not likely to develop during realistic ground motions in an otherwise regular building without a soft and/or weak story. Furthermore, the conditions necessary for “reversal” of a higher-“mode” pushover curve are examined. It is shown that “reversal” in a higher-“mode” pushover curve occurs after formation of a mechanism if the resultant force above the bottom of the mechanism is in the direction that moves the roof in a direction opposite to that prior to formation of the mechanism. Such “reversal” can occur only in higher-“mode” pushover analyses but not in the pushover analyses for the first-“mode” or other FEMA-356 force distributions. However, the “reversal” in higher-“mode” pushover curves was found to be very rare in several recent investigations that examined behavior of many moment-resisting frame buildings. Included are guidelines for implementing the Modal Pushover Analysis for buildings that display “reversal” in a higher-“mode” pushover curve.
Civil and Environmental Engineering