Postprint version. Published in Biofouling, Volume 28, Issue 2, February 1, 2012, pages 143-157.
Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis. This is an electronic version of an article published in Spontaneous multiscale phase separation within fluorinated xerogel coatings for fouling-release surfaces.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2012.659244.
Four-component xerogel films consisting of 1 mole-% n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18) and 50 mole-% tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in combination with 1–24 mole-% tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltriethoxysilane (TDF) and 25–48 mole-% n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8) and a 1:49:50 mole-% C18/TDF/TEOS were prepared. Settlement of barnacle cyprids and removal of juvenile barnacles, settlement of zoospores of the alga Ulva linza, and strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings (young plants) of Ulva were compared amongst the xerogel formulations. Several of the xerogel formulations were comparable to poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer with respect to removal of juvenile barnacles and removal of sporeling biomass. The 1:4:45:50 and 1:14:35:50 C18/TDF/C8/TEOS xerogels displayed some phase segregation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) pre- and post-immersion in water. Imaging reflectance infrared microscopy showed the formation of islands of alkane-rich and perfluoroalkane-rich regions in these same xerogels both pre- and post-immersion in water. Surface energies were unchanged upon immersion in water for 48 h amongst the TDF-containing xerogel coatings. AFM measurements demonstrated that surface roughness on the 1:4:45:50 and 1:14:35:50 C18/TDF/C8/TEOS xerogel coatings decreased upon immersion in water.