Postprint version. Published in Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 14, Issue 1, January 1, 1999, pages 17-21.
Recently founded populations represent an enormous challenge for genetic analysis: new populations are often genetically impoverished, making it hard to find sufficiently variable markers, and what little variation is present tends to be ancestral, rendering phylogenetic methods inappropriate. Recently, novel genetic markers and new statistical analyses have made multilocus genotyping an invaluable tool in the fledgling field of nonequilibrium population genetics. Such advances are not of mere academic interest but address questions of great economic, medical and conservation significance.